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Research Library

Building Coherence and Increasing Emotion Regulation Flexibility Towards Resilience: An Experimental Study in Singapore

    • Published: 2020
    • Yih Shyang Sim
    • Dissertation, Doctor of Psychology, School of Behavioral Sciences, California Southern University, 2020.
    • Download the complete paper, click here.


Although numerous agencies in Singapore have recently taken active steps in promoting the importance of emotion regulation and resilience building, there is a paucity of publication on such intervention programs. The purpose of this quantitative experimental study, the first in Singapore, was to examine the effectiveness of the HeartMath System (HMS). Thirty-four healthy participants from all walks of life in Singapore participated and were randomly assigned to the intervention group and the wait-list group. All participants completed the pre- and post-assessments, and the intervention group received a 2.5-hour workshop and practiced the HMS for 13 days. The findings were examined with a 2x2 mixed factorial MANOVA, univariate analyses, paired sample t-tests, and a Pearson correlational coefficient analysis between HRV measurements, POQA-R4, SOC-13, and ZTPI scores. Results showed significant multivariate interactions in HRV (p < .001), SOC-13 (p < .05), and ZTPI (p < .05) measures, all with very large effect sizes. Significant condition x time univariate interactions were observed in five 5-minute resting HRV, three 3-minute stress-preparation HRV, Relational Tension, Total SOC, SOCMA, BTP, PF, and PN, all with very large effect sizes. There were noticeable directional changes and very large effect sizes observed in POQA-R4. Correlational analyses revealed that participants with higher HRV, SOC, and BTP experienced reduced stress and increased resilience. The current findings support the use of the HMS, a research-based resilience-building program consisting of simple, practical techniques that Singaporeans can use "in-the-moment" and "on-the-go," to help them build coherence and increase emotion regulation flexibility towards resilience.