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Some Near‑ and Far‑Environmental Effects on Human Health and Disease with a Focus on the Cardiovascular System
Environmental effects on human physiopathology are revisited herein from a chronobiologic viewpoint, with a focus on the cardiovascular system. Physiological variables undergo recurring changes that are predictable in a statistical, albeit not deterministic way. Biological rhythms cover a broad range of frequencies, which are usually shared by the environment as "co-periodisms". Some of these photic and non-photic periodicities shared by the environment and physiopathology are reviewed herein, together with their possible underlying mechanisms. A plausible cascade of events from the long-period cycles found in the cosmic environment to those affecting the Earth’s atmosphere and weather conditions is presented, which may shed light on how they may shape the cycles characterizing human health. Maps of important cycles shared between the environment and physiopathology are being catalogued in an atlas of chronomes with the goal of distinguishing between strong and weak associations and providing an estimate of the lag that can be anticipated before observing physiological changes.