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Research Library

Efficacy of a Brief Biofeedback Intervention on Mood, arousal, Mental Workload, Movement Time, and Biofeedback Device Preference

    • Published: 2021
    • Seth Rose1,4, Frances Cacho2,4, Lenny Wiersma3,4, Anthony Magdaleno3,4, Nicholas Anderson3,4, Traci Statler3,4
    • Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 2021. DOI: Department of Movement Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA.2. Department of Educational Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.3. Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fullerton, CA, USA.4. Performance Psychology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fullerton, USA.
    • Download the complete paper, click here.


Biofeedback (BF) training has been utilized with performers for years. Previous literature highlights the effectiveness of multi-week intervention protocols, but there is a lack of evidence for abbreviated interventions using portable devices and the performer’s preference of these devices. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a brief BF intervention on mental workload, mood, arousal, and movement time and BF device preference. Participants (N = 40) were randomly assigned to one of two heart rate variability (HRV) BF interventions or a control group. Although the brief intervention did not have a significant effect on mood, movement time, or mental workload, it did significantly and positively impact perceived arousal. Overall, 12 participants (48%) preferred the EmWave™ desktop device, eight (32%) preferred the Inner Balance™ device, and five (20%) preferred the EmWave2™ portable device. Results support limited effectiveness of a brief HRV BF protocol, although the dose-response effectiveness should continue to be explored.