Follow Us

Stay in touch with us on social media!

  • Facebook

  • Twitter

  • Google+

  • LinkedIn

  • YouTube

  • Pinterest

  • Instagram

The Electricity of Touch: Detection and Measurement of Cardiac Energy Exchange Between People

Rollin McCraty, Ph.D., Mike Atkinson, Dana Tomasino, B.A., and William A. Tiller, Ph.D.

In: Karl H. Pribram, ed. Brain and Values: Is a Biological Science of Values Possible. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 1998: 359-379.

1. Summary
2. Introduction
3. Methods
4. Experimental Examples
5. Discussion
6. Future Discussions
7. References

References

  1. Wirth, D. P. The effect of non-contact therapeutic touch on the healing rate of full thickness dermal wounds. Subtle Energies 1990; 1(1):1-20.
  2. Grad, B. Some biological effects of the laying on of hands: review of experiments with animals and plants. J. Am. Soc. Psychical Res. 1965; 59:95-171.
  3. Keller, E. Effects of therapeutic touch on tension headache pain. Nur. Res. 1986; 35(2):101-105.
  4. Redner, R., Briner, B. and Snellman, L. Effects of a bioenergy healing technique on chronic pain. Subtle Energies 1991; 2(3):43-68.
  5. Krieger, D. The response of in vivo human hemoglobin to an active healing therapy by direct laying on of hands. Human Dimensions 1972; 1:12-15.
  6. Krieger, D. Healing by the laying on of hands as a facilitator of bio-energetic change: the response of in vivo human hemoglobin. Psychoener. Sys. 1974; 1:121-129.
  7. Rein, G. and McCraty, R. Structural changes in water and DNA associated with new physiologically measurable states. J. Sci. Explor. 1994; 8(3):438-439.
  8. Quinn, J. Therapeutic touch as an energy exchange: testing the theory. Adv. Nursing Sci. 1984; (January):42-49.
  9. Freud, S. The Standard Edition of the Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. London: Hogarth Press; 1962: 107-111.
  10. Krieger, D. The relationship of touch, with the intent to help or heal, to subjects' in-vivo hemoglobin values: A study in personalized interaction. In:Proceedings of the Ninth American Nurses' Association Research Conference. 1973. New York: American Nurses' Association.
  11. Laskow, L. Healing with love. New York: HarperCollins; 1992.
  12. Tiller, W. A. A gas discharge device for investigating focussed human attention. J. Sci. Explor. 1990; 4(2):255-271.
  13. Stroink, G. Principles of cardiomagnetism. In: Williamson S. J., Hoke M., Stroink G., and Kotani M., Advances in Biomagnetism. New York: Plenum Press; 1989: 47-57.
  14. Green, E., Parks, P., Guyer, P. M., Fahrion, S. and Coyne, L. Anomalous electrostatic phenomena in exceptional subjects. Subtle Energies 1991; 2(3):69-97.
  15. Wiesenfeld, K. and Moss, F. Stochastic resonance and the benefits of noise: from ice ages to crayfish and SQUIDs. Nature 1995; 373:33-36.
  16. Bulsara, A. R. and Gammaitoni, L. Tuning into noise. Physics Today 1996; March:39-45.
  17. Tiller, W., McCraty, R. and Atkinson, M. Cardiac coherence; A new non-invasive measure of autonomic system order. Alternative Therapies 1996; 2(1):52-65.
  18. McCraty, R., Atkinson, M. and Tiller, W. A. New electrophysiological correlates associated with intentional heart focus. Subtle Energies 1995; 4(3):251-268.
  19. Poponin, V. Nonlinear stochastic resonance in weak EMF interactions with diamagnetic ions bound within proteins. In: Allen M. J., Cleary S. F., and Sower A. E., Charge and Field Effects in Biosystems. New Jersey: World Scientific; 1994: 306-319.
  20. Astumian, R. D., Weaver, J. C. and Adair, R. K. Rectification and signal averaging of weak electric fields by biological cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1995; 92(3):740-743.
  21. Walleczek, J. Field effects on cells of the immune system: the role of calcium signaling. Fed. Amer. Soc. Exp. Biology 1992; 6:3177-3185.
  22. Liovitz, T. A., Krause, D. and Mullins, J. M. Effect of coherence time of the applied magnetic field on ornithine decarboxylase activity. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Com. 1991; 178:262-265.
  23. Russek, L. and Schwartz, G. Interpersonal Heart-Brain Registration and the Perception of Parental Love: A 42 Year Follow-Up of the Harvard Mastery of Stress Study. Subtle Energies 1994; 5(3):195-208.
  24. Russek, L. and Schwartz, G. Energy Cardiology: A Dynamical Energy Systems Approach for Integrating Conventional and Alternative Medicine. Advances 1996; 12(4):4-24.
  25. Coles, M., Gratton, G. and Fabini, M. Event-Related Brain Potentials. In: Cacioppo J. and Tassinary L., Principles of Psychophysiology: Physical, Social and Inferential Elements. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1990.
  26. Schandry, R., Sparrer, B. and Weitkunat, R. From the heart to the brain: a study of heartbeat contingent scalp potentials. Intern. J. Neuroscience 1986; 30:261-275.
  27. McCraty, R., Tiller, W. A. and Atkinson, M. Head-Heart Entrainment: A Preliminary survey. In:Integrating the Science and Art of Energy Medicine. 1995. Boulder, Colorado: ISSSEEM.
  28. Schandry, R. and Montoya, P. Event-related brain potentials and the processing of cardiac activity. Bio. Psychol. 1996; 42:75-85.
  29. Weitkanut, R. and Schandry, R. Motivation and heartbeat evoked potentials. J. Psychophysiol. 1990; 4:33-40.
  30. Montoya, P., Schandry, R. and Muller, A. Heartbeat evoked potentials (HEP): topography and influence of cardiac awareness and focus of attention. Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophy. 1993; 88:163-172.
  31. Kalmijn, A. J. Electric and magnetic field detection in elasmobranch fishes. Science 1982; 218(4575):916-918.
  32. McLeod, K. J., Lee, R. C. and Ehrlich, H. P. Frequency dependence of electric field modulation of fibroblast protein synthesis. Science 1987; 236(4807):1465-1469.
  33. Cleary, S. F., Liu, L. M., Graham, R. and Diegelmann, R. F. Modulation of tendon fibroplasia by exogenous electric currents. Bioelectromagnetics 1988; 9(2):183-194.
  34. Weaver, J. C. and Astumian, R. D. The response of living cells to very weak electric fields: the thermal noise limit. Science 1990; 247:459-462.
  35. Bialek, W. Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 1987; 16:455.
  36. Bezrukov, S. M. and Vodyanoy, I. Noise-induced enhancement of signal transduction across voltage-dependent ion channels. Nature 1995; 378:362-364.
  37. Levin, J. E. and Miller, J. P. Broadband neural encoding in the cricket cercal sensory system enhanced by stochastic resonance. Nature 1996; 380:165-168.
  38. Bezrukov, S. and Vodyanoy, I. Stochastic resonance in non-dynamical systems without repsonse thresholds. Nature 1996; December, In press.
  39. Douglass, J. K., Wilkens, L., Pantazelou, E. and Moss, F. Noise enhancement of information transfer in crayfish mechanoreceptors by stochastic resonance. Nature 1993; 365(6444):337-340.
  40. Rein, G. and McCraty, R. Modulation of DNA by coherent heart frequencies. In:Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference of the International Society for the Study of Subtle Energy and Energy Medicine. 1993. Monterey, CA.
  41. Quinn, J. F. and Strelkauskas, A. J. Psychoimmunologic effects of Therapeutic Touch on practitioners and recently bereaved recipients: A pilot study. Adv. Nursing Sci. 1993; 15(4):13-26.
  42. Dossey, L. But is it energy? Reflections on consciousness, healing and the new paradigm. Subtle Energies 1992; 3(3):69-82.
  43. Gough, W. C. and Shacklett, R. L. The science of connectiveness, Part III: The human experience. Subtle Energies 1993; 4(3):187-214.
  44. Tiller, W. A. What are subtle energies? J. Sci. Explor. 1993; 7(3):293-304.
  45. Paddison, S. The Hidden Power of the Heart. Boulder Creek, CA: Planetary Publications; 1992.
  46. Barnett, K. A theoretical construct of the concepts of touch as they relate to nursing. Nurs Res 1972; 21(2):102-110.